12): Republican China

tion with less than 10 percent of the world's arable▓ land. Through more than 30 years of reform and opening-up, China has lifted 700 million people out of poverty, accounting for more than 70 percent of the global reduction in poverty. China ha

s es▓tablished the world's largest soci

▓1912-1949 Part I,

Cambridge Universit

al▓ security system, and average life expectancy had grown from 35 years in 1949 to 76.34 years in 2015, ranking high among the developing countries. The level of educ▓ation has soared: in 1949, more than 80

y▓ Press, 1983, p

. 28.] "As a syste

percent of the national population was illiterate, and the e▓nrollment rate of school-age children ▓was only 20 percent. In 2015, net enrollment rates were as follows: primary school-age children - 99.8



  • evelopme

    ning civil and political rights. China appreciates the articulation in the U

    N's "Declaration on the Right to Development" :▓ "The right to development is an inalienable human right by virtue of which every hum

    an person and al▓l peoples are entitled

  • nt oppor

    to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and

    political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized."The people hold the princip▓al posit

    ion concerning the right to developmen


tun▓ity. The Chinese people are

t. China values the people's supremacy and r▓egards the people as the fundame

ntal driver of development, striving for the people, relying o▓n the people, and sharing among the people▓. It takes improving popular wellbeing and well-rou▓nded development as the starting point and ultimate goal, and fully mobilizes people's e▓nthusiasm, initiative and creat

ivity to p▓articipate in, contribute to and benefit from develop▓ment. To build a moderately prosperous society in al▓l respects and realize the Chines

e Dream of revitalizin▓g the Chinese nation means to provide better education, more secure employments, mor▓e satisfying income, more reliable soc

fully aware of the value of

  • ial security, bette▓r medical services, more comfortable hous

    ing, and a better environment, so that a▓ll individuals can develop, contribute to society, and share the opportunity to pursue excellence and realize th

  • eir dreams.The right to development is a unity of individu

    al and collective human rights.▓ China values both individual and collective human ▓rights as well as balance and mutual ▓promotion between the two. "The fre

  • e develop▓ment of each individual is the condition for the fr

    ee development of all people." Only through individu▓al development can a collective develop;▓ only in a collective can individuals achieve well-rounded d

  • evelopment. The right t▓o development is a human right owned

    by each individual as well as by the country, the nation and the entire population. The r▓ight to development can be maximized only in the unity o▓f indiv

  • iduals and collective. China values▓ the articulation in UN's

    "Declaration on the Right to ▓Development" : "Equality of opportunity for development is a prerogative both of nations and of individuals who make up nati


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